Research

We emphasize and encourage links between academic researchers and practitioners at financial institutions to bring theoretical techniques to bear on real-world issues.

Technology Disruption and Innovations

Technological disruptions in the financial sector can upset individual lives, reorder economies and destabilize governments. Digitization and technological advances are challenging the way institutions operate and creating new consumer expectations. Industry leaders need to adapt to these shifting preferences with new product offerings and services.

GRI recognizes the pressure on financial institutions to stay technologically relevant and we are dedicated to providing our members with the latest insights on FinTech innovations, their capabilities, associated risks and related opportunities.


Ethics & Artificial Intelligence in Finance

From a financial institution’s perspective, AI offers a wide range of potential benefits, but one must ensure that the implementation of this technology is both prudent and ethical. To aid in the understanding of how this can be achieved, this report will introduce AI and detail issues of bias, interpretability, and data security and privacy as they relate to the ethical use of AI algorithms by financial institutions.

Artificial Neural Networks in Financial Modelling

In this paper, we discuss Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), one of the most common and complex Machine Learning tools. After a non-technical introduction to ANNs, we examine the risks associated with the application of this algorithm to financial data.

Quantum Risk Assessment Report – Part 4

Public-key cryptography, which underpins the security of most of the tools we rely on today including cloud computing, payment systems, the internet, and IoT, are all susceptible to being broken by quantum computers in the not-so-distant future.

Quantum Risk Assessment Report – Part 3

This publication provides an extension of our work on estimating the real-world effort it will take for a quantum computer to compromise symmetric cryptographic functions at the foundation of protecting our ICT infrastructure.

Innovation and Digitization in Credit

In this report, we draw from a wide range of sources to provide a comprehensive overview of the global digital lending landscape. We survey recent growth trends of peer-to-peer (P2P) and other forms of alternative lending that have been enabled by digitization, and compare and contrast the major digital lending markets around the world.

A FINANCIAL INNOVATION SERIES – Smart Contracts

In this paper we discuss smart contracts – computer programmes running on top of a blockchain. We start with some intuitive examples that demonstrate the concept of a smart contract and then consider the Ethereum platform, the most notable platform for decentralized applications. We also outline some applications of smart contracts and discuss associated risks.

Will AI take over active fund management?

Research in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is growing exponentially, and as a result, applications of the technology in different industries are constantly being discovered. This paper explores how AI can be applied to the field of fund management, and specifically, how it can be used to manage active funds.

A FINANCIAL INNOVATION SERIES – Risks and Rewards of Financial Innovation

This report will consider several vantage points including that of the incumbent financial institution, the consumer, and the financial system as a whole. We will also offer some insight with regards to potential risk-mitigation strategies and commentary on the potential for fintech-related risks to become systemic.

A FINANCIAL INNOVATION SERIES – An Overview of FinTech in Canada

REPORT – A comprehensive overview of Canada’s Fintech landscape, comparing Canada to other Fintech hubs in terms of funding, regulations, and collaborations; discussing the geographic and categorical distributions of Canadian FinTech firms; and listing key players in the Canadian FinTech space.

Post-Quantum Key Exchange for the Internet and the Open Quantum Safe Project

Designing public key cryptosystems that resist attacks by quantum computers is an important area of current cryptographic research and standardization. To retain con dentiality of today’s communications against future quantum computers, applications and protocols must begin exploring the use of quantum-resistant key exchange and encryption.

A Resource Estimation Framework for Quantum Attacks Against Cryptographic Functions – Part 2 (RSA and ECC)

This report, “A Resource Estimation Framework for Quantum Attacks Against Cryptographic Functions” provides our next update on our ongoing work related to estimating the real-world effort it will take for a quantum computer to compromise specific cryptographic functions at the foundation of protecting our ICT infrastructure.

Breaking Bad Data & Solving for AML

With this article we are kicking off a focus on the usage of Big Data and Advanced Analytics in the area of anti-moneylaundering (AML). AML has been a particularly difficult solution for global banks as the evolving regulatory standards call for banks to be able to readily monitor all transactions across the firm, which requires an in-depth knowledge of their clients and their clients’ counterparties (and often times the correspondent banks).

AI Frontiers: Where We are Today and the Risks and Benefits of An AI Enabled Future

“Artificial Intelligence” is a very powerful narrative. In fact, today, many leading thinkers envision a future where machines surpass humans in intelligence. In Part One of our two part series, we assess of the potential near term risks and benefits of Artificial Intelligence. Later, in Part Two, we explore how AI is expected to impact Financial Services and what specific use-cases we expect to see over the next 1-3 years.

How Natural Language Processing is Reshaping the World of Finance

Natural Language Processing is a sub-section of the artificial intelligence domain that is focused on teaching computers to understand natural human languages. NLP encompasses a range of theory-motivated computational techniques which attempt to address the disconnect between human and computer languages.

A Methodology for Quantum Risk Assessment

Quantum computing is a growing technology that is rapidly changing how electronic communications and digital transactions will take place in the near future. In this article, we look at how organizations can investigate and mitigate the risks associated with the changes that will be brought about by this emerging technology.

Digital Banking Manifesto: The End of Banks?

Thanks to new developments in data technology and in mobile telecommunications adoption, we see the potential rise of a third wave of innovation in banking. In this paper we will outline the key features, benefits, and strategic imperative of the Digital Bank of the Future

Quantum Computing – An introduction

Computing capacity continues to expand and transform the world we live in. With computing capacity doubling every two years, as we cram more transistors onto microprocessors. And what is the result?

Quantum Computing and Cyber-security

Emerging quantum computing technologies threaten to undermine even the most sophisticated cybersecurity systems installed by businesses and governments

An efficient machine learning approach

Machine Learning (ML) is a rapidly developing technology with applications in a wide variety of areas

Blockchain, Cryptoeconomics, and the Disintermediation of Trust

As the technology that creates a distributed ledger, blockchain is creating significant waves of disruption in industries, processes and business models revolving around the centralization of trust.

Is the future of banking “Open”?: A case study on the strategic implications of open banking in Canada and the US

Is the future of banking “Open”?: A case study on the strategic implications of open banking in Canada and the US Technological and digital innovation has often been credited for having significant strategic implications for firms by shifting the competitive landscape and changing the market dynamics in an industry (Porter, 1985). It is also believed… View Article

Cryptocurrency Exchange Rates

Digital currencies (DC) represent one of the most disruptive innovations ever in consumer finance, and the Wall Street Journal refers to” one of the most powerful innovations in finance in 500 years.” (Casey and Vigna, Jan. 23, 2015) DC have become the platform for a thriving community of venture-backed start-ups.

Rotman FinHub

Rotman FinHub LEAD RESEARCHER       Andreas Park Andreas Park is an Associate Professor of Finance at the University of Toronto in the Department of Management at University of Toronto at Mississauga, with a cross appointment to the Finance area at Rotman. He has been a University of Toronto faculty member since 2003. His… View Article

Quantum Threat and Mitigation

Research on quantum threat timeline re. encryption schemes used by financial institutions. (timeline and mitigation techniques)