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Academic Final Report

Mortgage Foreclosure, Forbearance, and Refinancing

This paper examines the effect of foreclosure prevention policies during the pandemic on refinancing activities in the United States.

Research Report

COVID-19 Deaths Linked to Restrictions Stringency Lag: A G7 and Global Analysis, Implications for Public Policy

The Delta plus and Lambda variants increased transmissibility and breakthrough cases has highlighting potential vaccine resistance. This increases the urgency for policymakers to understand and immediately enforce regulations through reducing the stringency lag of their policies.

Research Brief

POWERSHIFTS, PANDEMIC AND POPULISM IN EUROPE: Reflections for Canadian Financial Services

This paper explores recent political changes, or “power shifts”, in four of the largest European economies. Over the course of 2021-22, Italy, the  Netherlands, Germany and France have hosted or will soon play host to major elections and/or leadership transitions. These countries are all principal architects of continental integration, dating back to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. At times, the four states also reflect conflicting viewpoints in deliberations over political and macroeconomic policy.

Research Report

TRANSITIONING FROM THE PANDEMIC: Towards a More Balanced Fiscal Policy

As Canada’s COVID-19 vaccination rates achieve critical thresholds in mid 2021, fundamental changes in fiscal policy are recommended to boost the Canadian economy’s supply side and make governments’ demand-side support more effective.

Research Report


This executive note briefly examines a number of different types of liabilities that may arise for financial institutions, provides illustrative case examples, and offers ideas for effective governance.

Academic Final Report

Green Urban Development: The Impact Investment Strategy of Canadian Pension Funds

Large Canadian pension funds are known to invest heavily in real assets, which include real estate, infrastructure and land. In this paper, we take the analysis down to the asset level and study how these funds create value and manage risks in the private real estate market.

Research Report

FINANCIAL INNOVATION SERIES – Machine Learning: Unsupervised Learning in Finance

The last decade has witnessed a large-scale adoption of machine learning tools in finance. According to the latest report  by Refinitiv, the number of data science teams in financial services firms have risen by more than 260 per cent since 2018 (see Refinitiv 2020).

White Paper

COVID-19 Triggers Great Nonfinancial Risk Crisis: Nonfinancial risk management best practices in Canada

COVID-19 Triggers Great Nonfinancial Risk Crisis: Nonfinancial risk management best practices in Canada Lois Tullo, Executive in Residence, Global Risk Institute Download the full Report - PDF Version INTRODUCTION The spread of viral disease COVID-19 is the most transformative nonfinancial risk (NFR) of this decade.  The uniting of strategy and risk management has never been... View Article